The biggest criminals
By Nicky Page
The information written in this article is my personal opinion.
To the best of my knowledge everything contained in it is true.
If you believe otherwise I suggest you research it for yourself.
I do not wish to malign anyone in particular. I do not hate the
MPAA even though I believe their DVD content protection and region
policies are not in the interest of the public. Nevertheless I
reserve the right to free speech and to voice my opinion. Your
reading of this article absolves me from any responsibility or
grievances you may hold against me in regard to anything written
herein. If you do not agree with this you may not read this article.
|"I do not regret posting DeCSS. It's very important that
we stand up against these multibillion corporate interests
who seek to dominate with their proprietary standards. It's
in consumers interest to be able to make a free choice from
whom or where to buy products." - Jon Lech Johansen
Some of you will probably already know who I am.
You may have seen my name mentioned in a computer magazine or
perhaps you have visited the Digital Digest website and read some
of my guides on DivX, Digital Video or DVD ripping. Some of you
may consider me a hacker or even a pirate! In truth I am neither
of these things. But the reason I have chosen to write this article
is in the hope that it will open the eyes of the public to the
truth concerning the DVD and piracy issues now being disputed.
Most of you know that DVD's have been encrypted
so that it becomes necessary for us to decrepit them if we intend
on converting them to DivX or any other video format on our computer
systems. This encryption system is called CSS and the teenager
quoted above is Jon Johansen. He was arrested because of posting
the code for a program called DeCSS which was designed for decrypting
a DVD. He did this in order to help design a DVD player for Linux.
After putting the code on line 2600 magazine (so called for the
frequency tone used to make free long distance phone calls) is
still fighting for the right to publish this code.
But what you probably didn't know is that in spite
of what the MPAA* claim, DVD encryption was not designed to prevent
piracy! This myth was merely a smokescreen designed to hide the
truth. What they have been doing with DVD's is actually illegal!
* The MPAA or Motion Picture Association
of America is an organisation that includes Sony, Universal, MGM
and Warner Bros.
Most people don't seem to understand that a DVD
can be copied with all the encryption still on it. Its analogous
to a secret code written on a piece of paper, you do not need
to understand the code in order to copy it. Any photocopying machine
would do the job. In actual fact we already have our own computerised
photocopying machine, its called Windows! All you need is a DVD
player such as PowerDVD to copy the contents. Start your movie
playing, then go to your DVD drive (using Windows Explorer) and
copy the DVDs contents across! All the contents are still encrypted
of course. But anyone with a DVD writer should be able to burn
them onto another disc. But before you panic thinking I've let
the cat out of the bag, you should know that this is very common
knowledge - it's not a secret.
In their own defence the MPAA have their own little
propaganda page (http://mpaa.org/). It tells people their reasons
for creating CSS and why they are trying to stop people from decrypting
it. But what it doesn't tell you is why they really created CSS.
When Jon Lech Johansen was found with the decryption code on his
computer claimed he was trying to develop a DVD player for Linux.
As many of you know Linux is the major contender for Windows,
where reliable operating systems are concerned. The beauty of
Linux is not only that is it more powerful and bug free than Windows,
but it is also completely free software! Microsoft have been so
frightened by it that they have been trying to figure out ways
to turn people off of it, which resulted in the so called "Halloween
Documents" that accidentally slipped out. They detailed how they
intend to malign Open Source software such as Linux. Microsoft
admitted these document were genuine but said they were they were
taken out of context. The only real failings of Linux so far are
that, since Windows was the Monopoly, it is not a very well supported
Operating System because it has very little software developed
At the time Jon Lech Johansen made DeCSS there was
no DVD player planned for Linux by any company. Jon knew that
given the choice people would choose Windows instead of Linux
if it were the only operating system with a DVD player. Those
who know the history of Linux also know that it was built with
the help of the Internet community, all devices built from it
were usually done in this manner, by exchanging information (such
as DeCSS) for free.
Decrypting the DVD code to make a DVD player comes
under the legal aspect of "reverse engineering". According to
the 1998 US Digital Millennium Copyright Act section 1201(f) 'reverse
engineering of a copy-protection encryption system is legal for
reasons of "interoperability" between computer systems.' Which
means Jon didn't need authorisation to try and figure out how
DVD's were encrypted. Technically he had the right under both
American and Norwegian law. Nevertheless they arrested poor ol'
Jon over it.
The MPAA propaganda page claims that "the De-CSS
utility was written for Windows-based software, not Linux". They
are trying to cause doubt by implying Jon was lying about his
Linux claims and was in fact just a wannabe DVD pirate. Jon explained
long ago why he did this, he says: "Linux did not have UDF support
[the filesystem used on DVDs]. It was thus natural to implement
it under Windows in order to test if it actually worked. Yes,
I've used Windows, nobody's perfect".
This is obvious to any programmer. If you are going
to reverse engineer a DVD you need to be able to read it to see
if it works! And since the Linux OS cannot read a DVD to decrypt
it, it was not possible to even start development. Since there
was no Linux DVD players, he was forced to reverse engineer a
Windows DVD player, hence a Windows DeCSS. The MPAA now claim
that a fully licensed Linux DVD player exists as another argument.
In truth none exist! I know of one big DVD company that has claimed
to be developing it, and I'm sure they will. Other companies apparently
claim to be doing so too and perhaps one has appeared but I can't
find one. But that's besides the point, when DeCSS was made none
were announced anywhere!
Why do DVDs use Encryption?
There are two main reasons why DVD's were encrypted
and both are designed to get more money. The CSS encryption system
uses region codes, these are:
- Zone 1: United States, Canada
- Zone 2: Europe, UK, Japan, South Africa, Middle East, Greenland
- Zone 3: Hong Kong, East & Southeast Asia
- Zone 4: Australia, Pacific Islands, New Zealand, South America,
- Zone 5: Russia, Indian Subcontinent, North Korea, Africa,
- Zone 6: China
These zones prevent anyone from importing DVD's from other countries.
Unless the DVD CSS region code is set for that country the DVD
will not play! Since the MPAA usually control the release of movies
so that they are released half a year later to the rest of Europe
than they are in the USA, they are able to control the prices
people pay for their movies.
Believe it or not we are actually being charged much more than
a DVD costs after normal video profit margins. If we don't count
studio mastering, the actual manufacture per unit price of a DVD's
is about one fifth that of a VHS tape! But I have no right to
complain the quality may be twice as good as VHS.
The problem is encryption allows them to introduce a method of
sale known as 'price discrimination'. Price discrimination is
considered illegal according to U.S. and international law! As
a result poorer countries (such as India) are only charged a fraction
of the price the rest of Europe. Unless a CSS encryption system
was incorporated into DVDs it would be possible for someone in
Europe to import a load of Indian DVDs and not need to pay the
extra money! But if the movie industry can convince the world
that CSS is only to stop PC pirates then this offers a grey area
that prevent anyone from noticing it! This whole marketing scam
alone is destined to give rise to DVD piracy. People buy pirate
movies for two main reasons.
1. They want to watch or have copies of movies from the cinema
before anybody else. It's more of an ego thing - to be the first!
DVD encryption will never prevent this kind of piracy since DVDs
appear in the shops after the Cinema has long stopped showing
the movie. There is then no need to be the first. Most cinema-pirated
movies are done with camcorders. If the person liked their pirated
camcorder movie they will almost always buy the DVD when it comes
out because of the extra quality, nice packaging and cut scene
2. The second reason people will buy a pirate movies is because
of the cost of the real release. If the pirate movie is quite
good and the real release is expensive they may opt for the illegal
Usually this will only happen if they were not really intending
on ever buying the legal shop release. The movie industry moans
about piracy as though it's making them really poor. But in fact
they know darn well that sales have increased over the years.
If someone really likes a movie they will save up for a commercial
boxed copy. If they are not too bothered they may pay for a cheap
pirated movie just to see if it's any good. Very often someone
will watch a cheap pirate movie to see if it is any good and end
up buying it on that basis. Since they would have never done this
unless they watched the pirated movie it has increased sales of
So what am I saying, that Piracy is okay? Of course not! It's
illegal to sell pirated movies and it certainly should be illegal.
But I am saying it is a very small problem. At the moment it's
far too costly for anyone to pirate DVDs. The DVD-R technology
needed is so new that it cost more than a commercial movie to
copy one! This will not always be the case, but if DVD's were
reasonably priced then people would be much more inclined to buy
a high quality commercial copy rather than a cheesy quality bootlegged
The Plot Thickens
But price fixing is only part of the reason DVD encryption was
used. The next major reason concerned the licensing of DVD players.
Remember that Jon Johansen was arrested when he tried to make
a Linux DVD player. If DeCSS got loose who knows how many rogue
DVD players could have been produced without the say so of the
MPAA. Since the DVD consortium did not hold all the patients over
Mpeg-2 or Video CD technology it was impossible to stop any manufacturer
from making a DVD player. Nowadays anybody can make a VHS video
player and it looked like the same would apply to DVD. If the
MPAA couldn't control who made DVD players then they also couldn't
keep the region zone scheme going. So they invented another little
trick, the licensing scheme. They invented a standard for DVDs
and patented it. If anyone in the world wanted to make a DVD player
they needed to pay them for the privilege. With a licence agreement
they could then demand you keep to their region codes. In fact
they can demand anything they like, which is why, for example,
DVD players cannot fast-forward past their adverts.
This problem is a serious one. Two years after the first release
of the DVD format the Chinese government reject DVD and created
their own standard of MiniDVD called SVCD (Super Video CD). Why
would they spend so much money on a new video format? Because
they didn't like how DVD's were controlled. China didn't want
foreign countries demanding so much for a technology that was
little more than a CD upgrade. It was insulting to them because
China had been leading the way in Video CD's long before DVDs
had even existed!
DVD licences are expensive! For the Linux community to create
a DVD player like they had created Linux would probably have proved
impossible. A licensee must pay a security payment of between
$750,000 and $1 million, which would be forfeit if the license
was ever breached. Additionally, it is said that the DVD CAA (a
supposed non-profit industry association) would also require a
6% royalty fee on all sales!
The MPAA have also refused certain people the right make DVD
players because they were too small companies. This gives the
MPAA far too much control over the market. If, for example, they
liked Microsoft, they could just deny a Linux DVD player licence.
As a result this would give Microsoft a distinct advantage. Their
blatant insistence on control of who can and cant make DVDs is
another thing that should be illegal under the Sherman antitrust
act. As far back as 1948 the US Supreme Court outlawed this practice
(United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc, 334 U.S. 131).
Make no mistake the creators of DVDs are not worried about common
home piracy. No doubt their marketing experts can see it poses
no real threat. They are merely trying to tighten their monopoly
over the world and make as much money as they possibly can. It's
no wonder they say that the 'biggest criminals wear suits!'
The DMCA & WIPO
The movie industry's seems to pale in comparison
to how basic human rights have been trampled on in order for publishers
to make more money! It may start with the arrest of an innocent
teenager for having DeCSS but it certainly doesn't end there.
There are huge problems with current copyright and patent laws
that are making publishers rich at the expense of the common person.
In America the Digital Millennium Copyright Act was passed by
Congress on October 12, 1998, and signed into law two weeks later
by President Clinton. The DMCA is designed to implement World
Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) treaties signed in December
1996 in Geneva.
Unfortunately these laws are being used by publishers
to try and enforce just about anything you could imagine. Publishers
want total and complete control over absolutely anything related
to their published works. For example, Warner Brothers who make
loads of kids movies and cartoons threatened a 15-year-old fan
of Harry Potter with legal action over her website. It contained
no illegal content or copyrighted material that they were concerned
about. They claimed the website was "likely to cause consumer
confusion or dilution of intellectual property rights". They were
trying to use the World Intellectual Property Organization act
of 1998 to steal her domain name. Neither was it a common domain
name it was: http://harrypotterguide.co.uk. They said people might
be confused by it even though she had a link to the official website
on the homepage! I'm not kidding! By twisting recent copyright
laws this type of crap is going on all the time! It is not just
Warner but I must say I've heard more stories like this concerning
Time-Warner than anyone else! They have a "we are your god" kind
of attitude - it's totally disgusting!
As you can imagine the DMCA is one of the laws that
the MPAA are quoting to stop people from decrypting a DVD too.
By their standards using the contents of the DVD for anything
but playing in a fully licence DVD player is the same as piracy.
DeCSS was a special case because a DVD player was reverse engineered
to find out the decryption codes. The MPAA claimed this is stealing
their codes! But stolen codes were never really a big issue with
DVDs. A DVD decrypter program existed long before DeCSS was made.
It used a converted DVD player to feed the contents of a DVD one
frame at a time to a computers hard disk. This allowed you to
convert the video contents to just about any other video format
you wanted. It didn't compromise any codes because they were not
needed. Nevertheless, the DVD encryption codes are amazingly simple
to break. One tool called VobDec is able to break any DVD in seconds
by firing random numbers at it until the code is broken! This
method doesn't use any stolen codes and many consider this a completely
legal way of accessing the DVD contents.
Exercising our Fair Use Rights
No matter how well they encrypt something we will
always find a way to get to the contents. So the real issue is:
'do we have the right to use the contents of a DVD or for our
own non-commercial reasons?' Let's use their beloved DMCA against
them. It states at section 1201b2:
"No person shall manufacture, import, offer to the
public, provide, or otherwise traffic in any technology, product,
service, device, component, or part thereof, that is primarily
designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing protection
afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects
a right of a copyright owner under this title"
Then it says:
''(c) OTHER RIGHTS, ETC., NOT AFFECTED.-(1) Nothing
in this section shall affect rights, remedies, limitations, or
defenses to copyright infringement, including fair use, under
"Nothing in this section shall enlarge or diminish
any rights of free speech or the press for activities using consumer
electronics, telecommunications, or computing products".
Did you see it? In bold (theirs not mine) it clearly
states that other rights are not affected including "Fair Use"!
So what is Fair Use? The U.S. Copyright Statute says:
"§107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 106 and
106A[exclusive copyrights], the fair use of a copyrighted work,
including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or
by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such
as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple
copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an
infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made
of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to
be considered shall include--
|(1) the purpose and character of the use,
including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is
for nonprofit educational purposes;
|(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
|(3) the amount and substantiality of the
portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole;
|(4) the effect of the use upon the potential
market for or value of the copyrighted work.
The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself
bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration
of all the above factors".
When videotapes were first introduced the movie
industry were in a panic fearing that they would loose money since
no one would go to the Cinema to watch a movie. As it turned out
instead of loosing money they actually made many millions of dollars
more by releasing movies on videotape after they had already made
millions at the box offices!
In 1984 Universal and Disney sued Sony for selling
Betamax video recorders. They claimed that non-commercial copying
of movies was the same as the "theft of a necklace". The US Supreme
Court reasoned that stealing a necklace stops the owner from wearing
the necklace, but videotape "does not even remotely entail comparable
consequences for the copyright owner." They decided that "Fair
Use" of video recording should be permitted for non-commercial
purposes and even "commercially significant noninfringing uses"
Fair Use is a copyright law that applies to just
about any published work, be it a book or a digitally encoded
and encrypted movie. According to 'Fair Use' anyone can, for example,
quote lines from a book in a review without fear of incurring
copyright liability. A soap opera fan can tape an over the air
TV shows during the day to watch later that night. Under the Betamax
decision even a scrambled cable broadcast can be recorded provided
the decoder used to watch them is legal.
Encryption the loophole in the Law!
Ever since VHS video recorders became commonplace
some publishers have wanted to stop us from exercising Fair Use
rights. A method was developed of encoding extra information into
a video recording that would degrade any copies made from it.
For this to work copy restriction circuitry was added to a video
that affected its automatic gain control (AGC). The most common
system used was called Macrovision and is used extensively in
Disney movies. When a Macrovision movie is copied the picture
will jump from dark to light once every second spoiling it! The
DMCA say that all video players (including DVD) should have an
appropriate AGC protection scheme.
As soon as all the video companies started putting
in AGC restriction, a whole host of people started selling bypass
modules that could get around it. Many of these companies were
taken to court and banned from making them. This was the first
attack in fair use rights. Some still exist of course but they
are always on shaky ground legally speaking. It is quite easy
for people with basic electronics skills to make their own Macrovision
bypass circuit. An Internet search will bring up diagrams for
Notice how the loophole crept in. Since they are
making any kind of encryption illegal to bypass, they are also
making using the content impossible too. You may think, 'so what
if they restrict it, what other reasons except piracy could bypassing
it be used for'. This is just narrow mindedness. There are many
reasons you could want to make copies. One example from personal
experience was when I started creating music videos based on clips
from Star Trek episodes for a friend (yes, I'm a Star Trek fan).
That's just one artistic use of the Fair Use laws. Other uses
may be as simple as making a back up copy so the kids can watch
it without the risk of damaging it in the video player. Or it
could be as complex as making a composite video of parts of movies
for a media study class. Perhaps you want to create your own music
video tape with your favourite songs on it. There is no end to
the legitimate uses that are stopped because of content encryption
such as Macrovision and CSS. Putting in such protection is like
saying that they believe you are a thief and do not deserve to
be treated as an honest human.
There is another growing trend with content or hardware
providers that provide audio or video solutions! They keep inventing
devices that degrade the quality if you attempt to copy any part
of it. Fair Use requires that we are able to make use of the content
in its original form. There would be an uproar if Fair Use laws
were changed so that you could only used copyrighted text provided
that some of the words had letters missing! But this kind of degradation
is being accepted with everything else.
Fair Use doesn't state that we should only be allowed
to make inferior quality copies of the material. The MPAA add
Macrovision protection (which was designed for VHS) to make it
impossible to even record sections of a DVD to low quality VHS!
It is certain that if the MPAA win, all fair use
rights will be banished at least when it concerns DVDs. Because
although you have a right under American law to use the contents,
there is this weird loophole called "copy protection" stopping
you! As long as they do not give you the rights to decrypt or
bypass it you cannot exercise your rights to the content. Neither
are just fair use rights blocked, it breaks the basic idea of
copyright! The reason for the copyright law was and I quote:
"To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts...by
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive
Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries."
This right only lasted 14 years originally since
they considered the public more important than commerce. If after
14 years the author wanted for some reason to renew it they could
for another 14 years. Then there was no more right to keep copyright
for themselves. People could use the published work and resell
it if they wished. However, DVD encryption has no expiry date.
Even if it was 100 years old and the move was rare and hard to
get, decryption (at least in the MPAA's eyes) is still not permitted.
What a loophole!
Reasonable fair use and copyright laws make it possible
for both libraries and schools to exist. You can go to any library
and get free almost any book. You can also get video and audiotapes
free in libraries. Libraries offer photocopying facilities so
you can make copies. Audio stores offer blank takes so you can
copy music. CD companies produce CD writers and software designed
solely for copying digitally perfect music. TV give movies free
and video recorders let you record them. The movie industry doesn't
complain about them like they do DVD decryption. As we get into
the new century there will no doubt be many more restrictions
placed upon digital content. Make no mistake these new laws will
not be written 'by the people for the people'. They will be written
by the publishers for the publishers - money always wins! Copyright
laws are getting to the point where they no longer "promote the
progress of science". It's more like they 'promote the progress
Money is far more important than the public interest
now. Multimillion dollar organisations get away with almost anything
these days because they have the money to do it. Small business
would be put in jail for the kind of stuff they get away with.
Money the root of all Evil!?
So the MPAA are doing a dirty on the public. So
what am I going to do about it? What are you going to do about
it?! The best we can hope is that enough of you find these issues
important enough to email your local newspaper about it! But to
be honest I do not believe much can be done about it! Why? Because
nothing can be done about any multi-billion dollar industry, short
of a revolution!
Okay, I know, by now you are probably thinking the
ol' geezers lost it, and perhaps you're right. But I'm gonna share
with you my little pet hate, and perhaps it will open your eyes
a little better to how the world really works or just confirm
your theory that I am mentally unstable. I must apologise in advance
for using this article to express my own political opinions but
it's my article and perhaps it's my only opportunity to speak
out what's on my mind.
You see the problem with almost every big organization
or indeed anyone with a lot of money is the power the have as
a direct result of that money. For example, if the same evidence
was set against any other human that was set against OJ Simpson,
they would have been convicted of murder? I don't know if OJ did
it but I am absolutely sure his money saved him. I think any financially
challenged person would be on death row by now.
The same goes for just about anything else you can
think of, its all money driven! Behind any war in the third world
you can almost guarantee there will be a world power behind it.
The UN and NATO's so called piece keeping forces are not exempt
from this! NATO is little more than America's secret army. For
example, what did the United Nations official in Mogadishu say
as the US marines came ashore to on 8 December 1992? I quote:
"The operation stinks of arrogance. All this bullsh*t about 80
per cent of food being looted and all that - it's all very stage-managed
by the United States....This whole operation is a test case for
future conflict resolution. It's as if the US had a new vaccine
they wanted to test. Now they have found an animal to test it
Everyone knows about the attack on Iraq! If Iraq
had had nuclear weapons like Russia they would never have attacked
them. The only reason the UN attacked Iraq was to secure and control
the oil produced there. The UN ignores countries more desperate
who actually ask for help! The UN's sanctions and economic isolation
of Iraq brought about 1.5 million deaths by lack of food, medical
supplies and clean water! Why? I'm sorry to say it boils down
to Money!* The peace keeping forces that have entered Bosnia and
Kosovo and Iraq have all been on the same mission, to secure the
UN oil interests. The world's richest countries are basically
ganging up on the poorer ones in order to steal oil (oil=money).
Yep, very little has changed, war is still motivated solely by
greed and has nothing to do with peace keeping. In this case the
UN are shooting to control the key oil production around the Caspian
Sea from Bosnia to Turkey and beyond - money rules again!
|*Note: I've used these well known event
to illustrate my point. But I think it's important when speaking
about Wars to separate the actual individual soldiers from
the causes they fight for. Soldiers should certainly be honoured,
since they are trying to protect the citizens of their country.
However, I think they should feel angry and insulted that
they could be asked to fight for money! What high morals,
American children who are not old enough to vote or drink
alcohol are considered old enough to die in order to make
their country economically richer.
I'm not isolating NATO or America in particular.
I don't dislike American citizens or indeed any other nation;
in fact I like them very much. But it's a strange system of democracy
that asks everyone to vote when in fact all the voting is fixed
anyway. Citizens are asked to vote on everything from banning
abortions to coca cola, but they are given no choice when it comes
to war campaigns.
But I'm not just talking about wars. Money is the
new law in regards to every large organization you can think.
Today the agricultural industry practice destroying crops just
to keep prices high. Yet in a world were we burn food millions
still starve because of food shortage. So we must ask ourselves
a scary question. If they invented a machine that could make infinite
fresh food and clean water from nothing, would they let anyone
Just as the video industry have been able to scam
us because of their great riches, so too have the music industry.
Or did you think the music charts were not fixed? Yes of course
they are fixed. There are only around seven record companies that
can get you into the charts. The charts themselves are little
more than an exclusive advertisement board for these record companies.
It's a business like any other; money needs to be paid for advertisements
and airtime. Rather than risk money loss most of these companies
have resorted to creating their own shake-n-bake boy and girl
bands. This is another complex subject to explain and each and
every one of these points I have made above requires entire articles
to explain them in a convincing way. I do not have the time or
really feel the need to explain them since it's not too hard to
research. If you are a musician then studying this may help you
learn to work the system better. In that light I have provided
a few links at the end of this article in regards to everything
mentioned in this article.
As for the Internet, digital video and so on, the
future is scary. There is a growing problem with all kinds of
content protection for reasons that would take too long to explain
here. It's nothing to do with piracy and everything to do with
cornering the new markets that are opening. The Internet is changing
fast, the big bucks are in who controls the streaming media. The
difference between TV and Internet will soon grey and the internet/cable
TV and all that will be all part of the same thing. The arguments
for and against copyrights are merely used to make laws and patents
that give those with the money the legal facade needed to corner
their little markets at the expense of everyone else.
As you can see, I'm not really the young upstart
hacker type that I appear to be. I am strongly concerned with
world affairs but since my hobby is digital video my focus has
been directed towards the issues involved in DVD ripping and Internet
video. I consider myself more of an idealist. But I guess I'm
also a defeatist, because even though I probably could do a lot
more to make things like this better known I don't honestly think
it will help at all!
As promised here are some related links you may
wish to check out for now: